A cheap sheet, about 2 inches (5.6 cm) thick, is used to measure water in Himalayan mountain streams.
But when it comes to water quality, it’s not the thickness that counts, says Arun Jaitley, secretary in the Department of Science and Technology, who has been working on the project since 2013.
Rather, it is the amount of the water being absorbed into the stream that matters, he says.
That is why the team at the Science and Innovation Institute (SISI) at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India, decided to make a piece of aluminium about half the size of the sheet, to be used for the measuring devices.
The project, called SISI-2, was led by PhD student Pankaj Mishra and his team.
The research was funded by the Centre for Nanotechnology Research (CNR), India’s premier research institute, and by the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
Mishra and team, led by CNR professor Arun Bhatia, had worked on a similar project in the US.
The two teams worked closely with each other, using different equipment.
The team in India made the instrument with a small, low-cost aluminium sheet, while the US team made it with a piece about 1.5 inches (4.4 cm) in thickness, about the same thickness as the sheet.
Both pieces of aluminium were cut to the right size and the length, then heated to the proper temperature and submerged in water to be measured.
Once the water is added to the water measuring instrument, it measures the amount and volume of water absorbed into it, Jaitie’s team found.
The water that was added to both instruments showed that it was very similar in its volume to that of the untreated water, the team found.
“We did a lot of calculations, looking at how the volume of the treated water differed from that of untreated water,” Jaitier says.
The amount of water taken up by the water measured by the two instruments was less than the amount that was absorbed into untreated water.
The measurements revealed that the untreated amount of river water in the Himalayas was between 5.8 billion and 10.7 billion liters per year.
This compares with the amount absorbed into a human being’s body in one year.
It also compared with what a person would need to consume to meet their daily requirement for water, Jai says.
For the water meters, the researchers measured the amount in grams and liters.
They then calculated how much the water was going to add to the volume.
They found that the amount added to a human body was around 0.3 liters in one month.
The average amount added was around 1.6 liters over a week, Jair says.
This study, he adds, shows that the water meter in the field can be used to monitor and monitor the water quality of the Himalayan stream.
However, the water measurement instrument is not just for measuring water in rivers and streams.
The team also wanted to measure river flow and how it affected water quality.
This, too, is not possible with a conventional water meter.
“The measurement of river flow can be done with a simple instrument, but not with an instrument that is expensive,” Jair explains.
“We wanted to do the measurements of river quality, which can also be measured with a traditional water meter.”
To accomplish this, the group took apart an old water meter and measured the flow of water through it, he notes.
“There is no water flow instrument in this village, so we decided to create a simple one,” Jai adds.
This instrument measures the flow rate of the river and also measures the size and volume.
Jaitair says it is more accurate than a traditional meter that measures the water in an hour.
The scientists also found that if the water gauge is connected to a monitor or phone, the instrument can be placed on the roof of a house.
They found that it would take more than a day for the water to reach the water-monitor, and that it is difficult to monitor the flow in the rainforest, a place where the river has very little rainfall, and in which it has been a problem for years.
“If we want to monitor any river in India, we have to go into the rain forest and monitor it,” Jaim says.
“It is difficult and time consuming to go there.”